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Answer the following questions : 

(i) What are nonsense codons 

(ii) What is a micro processor ? 

(iii) What is the role of oligonucleotide primer during DNA replication 

(iv) Name two unique bases found in the tRNA structure. 

(v) Who is regarded as the father of tissue culture technique ?

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(i) Nonsense codons : The three codons, UAA (known as ochre), UAG (amber) and UGA (opal), that do not code for an amino acid but act as signals for the termination of protein synthesis are known as nonsense codons.

(ii) Microprocessor : A microprocessor or processor is the heart of the computer and it performs all the computational tasks, calculations and data processing etc. inside the computer. Microprocessor is the brain of the computer. In the computers, the most popular type of the processor is the Intel Pentium chip and the Pentium IV is the latest chip by Intel Corporation. The microprocessors can be classified based on the following features.

Instruction Set: It is the set of the instructions that the Microprocessor can execute. 

Bandwidth : The number of bits processed by the processor in a single instruction.

Clock Speed : Clock speed is measured in the MHz and it determines that how many instructions a processor can processed.

(iii) Oligonucleotides : Oligonucleotides composed of oligodeoxyribonucleotides (DNA) are often used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a procedure that can amplify almost any small piece of DNA. There, the oligonucleotide is referred to as a primer, allowing DNA polymerase to extend the oligonucleotide and replicate the complementary strand. 

(iv) Two unique bases are : 

1. dihydrouridine(DHU) 

2. pseudouridine 

(v) Gottlieb Haberiandt

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