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Explain briefly: 

(i) Chargaff’s rule of equivalence 

(ii) Database 

(iii) Biolistic 

(iv) Coenzyme 

(v) Optical activity

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(i) Chargaff’s rule of equivalence : Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), the genetic material is made up of four types of organic nitrogenous bases : adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C). Of these, A and G are the purines and T and C are the pyrimidines. Chargaff gave the base pairing rule or the rule of base equivalence which states that only one purine can combine with one pyrimidine. That means A can combine with T and G with C. Two purines or two pyrimidines cannot combine with each other; if they do so, there will be a sudden change in the characteristic of an organism. This sudden change is called mutation.

(ii) Database : A database is an organized collection of data for one or more multiple uses. One way of classifying databases involves the type of content,

for example: bibliographic, full-text, numeric and image.

Biological databases are libraries of life sciences information, collected from scientific experiments, published literature, high-throughput experiment technology, and computational analysis. They contain information from research areas including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microarray gene expression, and phylogenetics. Information contained in biological databases includes gene function, structure, localization (both cellular and chromosomal), clinical effects of mutations as well as similarities of biological sequences and structures.

(iii) Biolistic : The particle gene gun is part of a method called the biolistic (also known as bioballistic) method, and under certain conditions, DNA (or RNA) become “sticky,” adhering to biologically inert particles such as metal atoms (usually tungsten or gold). By accelerating this DNA-particle complex in a partial vacuum and placing the target tissue (cells/nuclei) within the acceleration path, DNA is effectively introduced for genetic recombination.

(iv) Coenzyme : A non-proteinaceous organic substance that usually contains a vitamin or mineral and combines with a specific protein, the apoenzyme, to form an active enzyme system.

(v) Optical activity : The ability of some compounds to rotate the plane of polarized light because of the asymmetry of the molecule. If the plane of light is rotated to the right, the substance is dextrorotatory and is designated by the prefix (+); if laevorotatory (rotated to the left), the prefix is (-). A mixture of the two forms is optically inactive and is termed racemic.

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