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Assess the outcomes of the early phase of planned development in India.

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Agriculture, industry and land reforms were the three most significant objectives after Independence. As political power was in the hands of land-owning classes and capitalists, land reforms and poverty eradication were slow. No major steps were taken to implement these objectives as only economically dominant classes benefited from this policy. 

There were three major outcomes: 

1. Economic Foundation : Planned development during the early phase of Independence laid foundations of India’s economic growth. India has borrowed the idea of Five Year Plans from USSR. The First Five Year Plan laid emphasis on the development of agriculture. The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of key (heavy) industries and building of mega dams. Mega-dams like Bhakra Nangal and Hirakud for irrigation, and power generation came up. Heavy industries in sectors of iron and steel, oil refinery, manufacturing units, defence, etc. were started. Gradually, transport and communication infrastructure were improved. 

2. Land Reforms: The most important development was in the field of land reforms. The colonial legacy of the zamindari system was abolished. 

The two components of land reforms were much less successful which were as follows:

 • Laws ever made to put an upper limit or ceiling on the amount of agricultural land that person could own but people with excess land violate the provision of a ceiling. 

• Laws were made to provide legal security against the eviction of tenants who worked on someone else land. 

3. Green Revolution : The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation led to the Green Revolution. It provided the increase in production required to make India self-sufficient in food grains.

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