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Superheated steam at 575°C is routed from a boiler to the turbine of an electric power plant through steel tubes (k=35W/m.K) of 300mm inner diameter and 30mm wall thickness. To reduce heat loss to the surroundings and to maintain a “safe to touch” outer surface temperature, a layer of calcium silicate insulation (k=0.10W/m.K) is applied to the tubes, while degradation of the insulation is reduced by wrapping it in a thin sheet of aluminium having an emissivity of ε=0.20. The environment temperature of the power plant is 27°C. Assuming that the inner surface temperature of a steel tube corresponds to that of the steam and convection coefficient outside the aluminium sheet is 6 W/m².K, determine the:

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The heat rate is then

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