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Enumerate the general character of Bryophytes.

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The general character of Bryophytes: 

1. Bryophytes are non – vascular cryptogams due to absence of xylem & phloem.

2. The plant body is a gametophyte and it is conspicuous, long – lived. 

3. Plant body is undifferentiated into root, stem & leaves. Thalloid forms with rhizoids are seen in liverworts & hornworts. Leaf – like and stem – like structures are seen in mosses. 

4. Vegetative reproduction is by adventitious buds, tubers, brood bodies or by gemmae. 

5. Sexual reproduction is oogamous producing Antheridia & Archegonia in multicellular protective coverings.

6. Antheridia produces biflagellate antherozoids which swims in water & fuse with egg forming diploid zygote. 

7. Water is essential for fertilization. 

8. Zygote is the first cell of sporophyte. Zygote undergoes mitotics forming undifferentiated embryo, forming sporophyte. The embryogeny is exoscopic. 

9. Sporophyte is dependent on gametophyte.

10. Sporophyte is differentiated into foot, seta & capsule. 

11. Capsule of Sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis. 

12. Bryophtyes are homosporous which are dispersed by elaters. 

13. Spores germinate producing haploid gametophyte. 

14. Heterologous alternation of generation. 

15. Proskauer classified bryophytes into 3 classes, Hepaticopsida(Riccia),Anthocerotopsida

(Anthoceros) and Bryopsida (Funaria).

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