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Give reason for the following observations: 

(a) The tendency for catenation decreases down the group. 

(b) The decreasing stability of +3 oxidations state with increasing atomic number in group 13. 

(c) PbO is a stronger oxidizing agent than SnO

(d) Molten aluminium bromide is a poor conductor of electricity. 

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(a) It is due to decrease in bond dissociation energy which is due to increase in atomic size. 

(b) It is due to Inert Pair Effect. 

(c) PbO2 is stronger oxidizing agent than SnO2 because Pb2+ is more stable than Pb4+ whereas Sn4+ is more stable than Sn²⁺. 

(d) Molten AlBr3 is poor conductor of electricity because it is covalent compound.

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