Microbodies are small single membrane-bound organelle. They are formed by ER. They were first observed by Rhodin.They Found in protozoa, fungi, plants, and liver and kidney cells.
Microbodies are four types:-
Peroxisomes help in detoxifying the alcohol in the liver cell.
Contains amino acid oxidase, hydroxyl acid oxidase, peroxidase, catalase enzymes.
Their catalase enzymes degrade H2O2.
In animal cells peroxisomes they perform fat metabolism, peroxide metabolism.
In plant cells, photorespiration occurs in peroxisome with mitochondria and chloroplast.
2. Glyoxysomes: –
These were first seen by Harry Beaver.
Found in fungi and germination oil seed eg. Castor seed, groundnut seed etc.
These are involved converting fat into carbohydrates by process gluconeogenesis.In Glyoxysomes the fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl Co-A by peroxisomal β – oxidation enzymes.
Glyoxylate cycle occurs in Glyoxysomes.
Groundnut sees become sweet due to glyoxylic acid.
3. Spherosomes: –
These are a single membrane, small, spherical cell organelles that are specialized to synthesize and store lipids example- Cell of cotyledons mustard, groundnut etc.
Found in fat storing plant cells but are abundant in oilseeds E.g. Maize root tip, tobacco endosperm. They are known as plant lysosome and are also called Oleosome. their diameter is about 0.5-2.5 micron.
4. Lomesome: –
Discovered by moor and McAlear.
Found between the cell wall and plasma membrane of fungal and plant cell.
They are also known as a Paramural body, plasmalemmasomes if associated with plasma membrane.