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Elements of group 14 

(a) exhibit oxidation state of +4 only 

(b) exhibit oxidation state of +2 and +4 

(c) form M2– and M4+ ion 

(d) form M2+ and M4+ ions

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(b)The elements of group 14 have 4 valence electrons. Therefore, the oxidation state of the group is +4. However, as a result of the inert pair effect, the lower oxidation state becomes more and more stable and the higher oxidation state becomes less stable. 

Therefore, this group exhibits +4 and +2 oxidation states. 

Group 14 elemen                           Oxidation state

        C                          =                             +4

        Si                          =                            +4

  Ge , Sn , Pb                =                        +2 , +4

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