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Explain the different methods used for liquefaction of gases.

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  • Linde’s method: Joule-Thomson effect is used to get liquid air or any other gas. 
  • Claude’s process: In addition to Joule-Thomson effect, the gas is allowed to perform mechanical work so that more cooling is produced. 
  • Adiabatic process: This method of cooling is produced by removing the magnetic property of magnetic material e.g. Gadolinium sulphate. By this method, a temperature of 10-4 K i.e. as low as zero Kelvin can be achieved.

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