A pond ecosystem refers to fresh water ecosystem where there are communities of organism dependent on each other with the prevailing water environment for their nutrients and survival. Usually, ponds are shallow water bodies with a depth of 12-15 feet in which the sun rays can penetrate to the bottom promoting the growth of plants there. It is a natural ecosystem.
The following diagram shows a pond ecosystem.
There are two components in the pond ecosystem:
(a) Abiotic – It consists of water, dissolved minerals, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Sunlight is the main source of energy.
(b) Biotic – It includes phytoplanktons, aquatic insects, fishes, and microbes. These organisms are classified as producers, consumers, and decomposers. The energy flows from producer to consumers.