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Mentions any four characteristics of forest soils.

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Forest soils are found in mountainous regions where there is an abundance of forests. Frequent rains have made this soil very fertile and rich with humus. The nature and texture of the forest soils vary due to climate. Some other characteristics are:

(i) Some soils are dry, sandy, and unstable due to winds on the plains of the Indus valley.

(ii) Soils in the Northern and Central Zones of India are alluvial in nature, and some are red soils. Other types include laterite and black soils which are prevalent in Maharashtra and Orissa.

(iii) In the Southern regions, the soils have originated due to various geological phenomena like weathering of rocks etc. The soil is dry and shallow. Black cotton soil is also available in some areas.

(iv) In the Eastern regions, laterite soils are common. Other types include red, alluvium, and clay. The soils are fertile because there is an abundance of fallen leaves which add to the cycling of nutrients. The rocks from which these soils originated from are crystalline, metamorphic.

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