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Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows: 

Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family –should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and stronger. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.

(i) Which of the following statements correctly describes about European conservative ideology?

A. Preservation of believes introduced by Napoleon 

B. Preservation of two sects of Christianity 

C. Preservation of socialist ideology in economic sphere 

D. Preservation of traditionalist beliefs in state and society 

(ii) Identify the purpose to convene the Vienna of Congress in 1815 from the following options?

A. To declare competition of German unification 

B. To restore conservative regime in Europe 

C. To declare war against France 

D. To start the process of Italian Unification 

(iii) What did conservatives focus on at the Congress of Vienna? Select the appropriate option.

A. To re-establish peace and stability in Europe 

B. To establish socialism in Europe 

C. To introduce democracy in France 

D. To set up a new Parliament in Austria 

(iv) How did the Congress of Vienna ensure peace in Europe? Select the appropriate option.

A. With the restoration of Bourbon Dynasty 

B. Austria was not given the control of Northern Italy 

C. Laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe 

D. By giving power to the German confederation

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1 Answer

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(i) D. Preservation of traditionalist beliefs in state and society

(ii) B. To restore conservative regime in Europe

(iii) A. To re-establish peace and stability in Europe.

(iv) C. Laying out a balance of power between all the great powers in Europe.

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