(i) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised with the image of Bharat Mata.
(ii) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
(iii) Novel Anandamath.
(iv) Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata and portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
(v) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
(vi) Icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(vii) During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
(viii) Reinterpretation of history that to instill a sense of pride in the nation.