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How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging in the nineteenth century India? Explain.

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(i) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised with the image of Bharat Mata. 

(ii) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. 

(iii) Novel Anandamath. 

(iv) Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata and portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. 

(v) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore. 

(vi) Icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism. 

(vii) During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. 

(viii) Reinterpretation of history that to instill a sense of pride in the nation.

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