Process and the basis of Reorganization of States of Indian Union
(1) After partition the challenge was to draw the internal boundaries of the Indian states. The boundaries had to be drawn in a way so that the linguistic and cultural plurality of the country could be reflected without affecting the unity of the nation. Indian National Congress and many leaders recognized the linguistic principle as reorganization of new states’ boundaries.
(2) On the basis of language might lead to disruption and disintegration and would draw attention away from other social and economic challenges that the country faced.
(3) Protests began in the Telugu speaking areas of the old Madras province. The Vishalandhra Movement (the movement for a separate Andhra) demanded that the Telugu speaking areas should be separated from the Madras province and be made into a separate Andhra province.
(4) The movement gathered momentum. Potti Sriramulu, a Congress leader and a Veteran Gandhian, went on an indefinite fast that led to his death after 56 days.. Finally, the Prime Minister announced the formation of a separate Andhra State in December 1952.
(5) New States formed after 1956 were :
(i). Creation of 14 states and six union territories. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand are the new states formed after 1956.
(ii). Uttarakhand from Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand from Bihar all of these created in 2000.
(iii). In 2014, another state is created after bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh, namely Telangana. As a result Gujarat was formed out by Bombay. Haryana was from Punjab, Himachal Pradesh was formed out from Punjab. Tripura, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh were created from Assam.