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Point out the differences between the following:

(i) Agnatha and Gnathostomata.

(ii) Super class Pisces and Super class tetrapoda

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(i) Differences between Agnatha and Gnathostomata:

S.No. Agnatha Gnathostomata
(i) Jaws are absent. Jaws are present
(ii) Paired appendages absent. Paired appendages present.
(iii) Notochord persistent. Notochord replaced by vertebral column.
(iv) Single median nostril present. Nostrils are paired.

(ii) Differences between Super class Pisces and Super class tetrapoda:

S.No. Super class-Pisces Super class-Tetrapoda
(i) Fishes have paired appendages in the form of pectoral and pelvic fins. Tetrapods have paired appendages in the form of five digited limbs.
(ii) They may possess an exoskeleton of dermal scales. They may possess an exoskeleton of epidermal scales, feathers, or hair.
(iii) Fishes respire by means of gills Tetrapods respire by gills. Some amphibians respire by buccopharyngeal cavity, skin and gills.
(iv) Heart is 2-chambered except lung fishes where heart is 3- chambered. Heart is 3 or 4-chamered.
(v) Fishes have internal ear. Tetrapods may have internal and middle ear or internal, middle and external ear.

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