Different macronutrients and their functions are :
(i) Carbon : It is the major component of carbohydrates and other cellular constituents.
(ii) Oxygen : It is an important component of carbohydrates and other structural constituents of the cells.
(iii) Magnesium: It is an essential component of chlorophyll and is involved in binding of ribosome components. It acts as enzyme activator in those cases which are concerned with phosphate metabolism.
(iv) Calcium :
(a) Synthesizes calcium pectinate, the constituents of middle lamella in the cell wall.
(b) It helps in translocation of carbohydrates.
(c) It regulates cell permeability.
(d) It helps in lipid metabolism.
(a) It is an important constituent of protoplasm and protein.
(b) It is found in amino acids, NAD, NADP, purines, pyrimidines, chlorophyll enzyme etc.
(a) An important constituent of cell membrane, certain proteins, all nucleic acid and nucleotides.
(b) It is present in AMP, ADP ATP GDP and GTP and plays an important role in the energy transfer of photosynthesis and respiration.
(c) Essential for all phosphorylation reactions.