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Write the characteristics of seedless vascular plantae (Pheridophytes).

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The characteristics of seedless vascular plantae (Pheridophytes) are: 

(i) Dominant phase or plant body is a sporophyte. 

(ii) Plant body is differentiated into true roots, stems and leaves. 

(iii) Vascular tissues are present. They are of two types; xylem and phloem. In xylem, true vessels are absent. In phloem, companion cells and sieve tube are absent. Instead, sieve cells are present. 

(iv) Meiospores are formed inside sporangia. Sporangia are associated with leaves called sporophylls. 

(v) Gametophyte is small or inconspicuous. It is usually independent. 

(vi) Sex organs are multicellular and jacketed. It is usually independent. Archegonia are partially embedded. Archegonial neck is 4-rowed. 

(vii) Sperms are flagellate: They require an external supply of water for swimming to reach archegonia. 

(viii) Embryo stage is present. 

(ix) Heteromorphic or heterologous alternation of generations is present in the life cycle.

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