The main functions of NABARD pertain to policy development, coordination, research, training, etc., relating to rural credit. It provides refinance to cooperatives, regional rural banks, etc. Moreover it makes loans and advances to state governments for a period not exceeding more than 20 years to enable them to subscribe directly or indirectly to share the capital of cooperative credit societies. It also promotes research in agriculture and rural development through its research and development fund. It undertakes inspection of co-operative banks and RRBs and advises the government on related matters. NABARD undertakes monitoring and evolution of the projects financed by it. The NABARD maintains two funds; The National Rural Credit Fund (long-term operations) and the National Rural Credit Fund (Stabilization).
The central and state governments contribute to the fund. The NABARD operates throughout the country through its 16 regional offices located in the capitals of all the major states and 3 sub offices, the paid-up capital of NABARD stood at Rs 2000 crore as on March 31, 2010. The profit after tax amounted to Rs 1558 crore during the year 2009-10 as against Rs 1390 crore during the year 2008-09.
NABARD had a paid-up share capital of Rs 100 crore, since this has been raised through stages to Rs 5,000 crore. The NABARD is empowered to borrow from central government.It is also permitted to borrow foreign currency. It can also borrow long-term loans from any other authority or organisation or institution approved by the Board. It is empowered to issue bonds, debentures and other financial instruments.