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What is Green Revolution? Why was it implemented and how did it benefit the farmers? Explain in brief.

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Due to low productivity, frequent occurrence of famines and low levels of agricultural products in the latter half of second five year plan, a team was formed to suggest various ways to counter these problems. As per the recommendations of the team, government introduced the use of HYV seeds, modern techniques and inputs like fertilisers, irrigation facilities and subsidised credit. These steps collectively are known as Intensive Area Development Programme (IADP). Consequently, in the year 1967-68, food grains production increased nearly by 25%. Due to this substantial increase of food grains production, this outcome is known as 'Green Revolution'. The word Green Revolution comprises of two words 'Green' that is associated to crops and 'Revolution' is associated to the substantial increase.  

Need of Green Revolution  

The needs of Green Revolution are as follows.

(i) Low Irrigation Facility: The well-irrigated and permanent irrigated area was only 17% in 1951. The major part of area was dependent on rainfall and, consequently, agriculture suffered from low level of production.     

(ii) Conventional and Traditional Approach: The use of conventional inputs and absence of modern techniques further hampered the agricultural productivity.  

(iii) Frequent Occurrence of Famines: Famines in India were very frequent during the period 1940s to 1970s. Further, due to higher growth rate of populations, agriculture failed to grow at the same speed.  

(iv) Lack of Finance (credit): Small and marginal farmers found it very difficult to get  finance and credit at cheap rate from the government and banks ,hence, fell an easy prey to the money lenders. 

(v) Self-sufficiency: Due to the traditional agricultural practices, low productivity, and to feed growing population, often food grains were imported that drained away scarce foreign reserves.It was thought that with the increased production due to Green Revolution, government can maintain buffer stock and India can achieve self-sufficiency and self-reliable. 

(vi) Marketing Agriculture: Agriculture was basically for subsistence and, therefore, less amount of agricultural product was offered for sale in the market. Hence, the need was felt to encourage the farmers to increase their production and offer a greater portion of their products for sale in the market.   

Benefits of Green revolution  

(i) Increase in Income: Green revolution resulted in the increase in the production of wheat and rice by the use of HYV seeds. Its benefits were enjoyed by the wheat and rice growing states such as Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The income of the farmers of these states increased removing rural poverty.

(ii) Impact on Social Revolution: The traditional methods of farming was substituted with modern methods of farming with the use of High yielding seeds, better irrigation facility, use of fertilizers and pesticides. The old social beliefs and customs were destroyed and people were willing to accept changes in technology. 

(iii) Increase in Employment: Due to Green Revolution the seasonal unemployment in the agriculture was reduced to a great extent.

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