Structure of spinal cord:
1. Spinal cord is a 42 to 45 cm long, 2 cm thick and hollow tube, extending from medulla oblongata to lumbar region.
2. It lies in the neural canal of vertebral column.
3. At the other end, it tapers down and is called conus medullaris. The posterior most end is called filum terminale which appears as a threadlike structure.
4. Beyond the second lumbar vertebra, it forms a horse tail-like structure called cauda equina. Cauda equina is a bunch of dorsal and ventral roots of last pair of spinal nerves.
5. There are two swellings on the spinal cord. The upper is cervical swelling and lower is lumbar swelling. Accordingly there are two plexuses, the cervical plexus supplying nerves to hands and the lumbar plexus supplying nerves to legs.
6. 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from spinal cord.