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Which of the following Mughal Emperors introduced educational reforms?
1. Jahangir
2. Shahjahan
3. Humayun
4. Akbar

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Akbar

The correct answer is Akbar.

  • Akbar:
    • Akbar’s position was dangerous when he succeeded his father Humayun as Delhi was seized by the Afghans.
    • In 1556, in the second battle of Panipat, Akabar defeated Hemu and the army of Hemu fled which made the victory of Mughals was decisive.
    • During the first 5 years of Akbar’s reign, Bairam Khan acted as his regent.
    • Akbar introduced educational reforms.
    • Later, Akbar removed Bairam Khan and sent him to Mecca but Bairam Khan was killed by an Afghan on his way.
    • The military conquests of Akbar were extensive.

  • Jahangir:
    • Jahangir was the eldest son of Akbar.
    • But the lack of primogeniture among the Mughals meant a tussle for the throne was bound to happen.
    • He revolted for power while his father was engaged in the Deccan in 1599.
    • But Akbar returned to Agra and the rebellion was suppressed.
    • With the support of his stepmothers, he rose to power on Akbar’s death.
  • Shahjahan:
    • Shah Jahan was an able military commander.
    • While still a prince, he was able to obtain the submission of the Rajput state of Mewar which Akbar had not been able to defeat.
    • Mewar then became a vassal of the Mughal Empire.
    • On becoming the emperor, Shah Jahan executed many of his former rivals including his own brother Shahryar, imprisoned many more, and consolidated his power.
    • The Mughal rules of succession do not follow primogeniture, i.e., the eldest son succeeding the father; there is always a fight for power by brothers in the Mughal courts upon the death of a ruler.
  • Humayun:
    • Humayun was the eldest son of Babur.
    • Humayun means “fortune” but he remained the most unfortunate ruler of the Mughal Empire.
    • Six months after his succession, Humayun besieged the fortress of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand, gained a decisive victory over Afghans at Douhrua, and drove out Sultan Mahmood Lodhi from Jaunpur, and even defeated Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
    • His victories, however, were short-lived due to the weakness of his character.
    • Humayun had three brothers, Kamran, Askari and Hindal.
    • Humayun divided the empire among his brothers but this proved to be a great blunder on his part.
    • Kamran was given Kabul and Kandahar.

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