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Lord Buddha's image is sometimes shown with the hand gesture called 'Bhumisparsha Mudra'. it symbolizes  
1. Buddha's calling of the Earth to watch over Mara and to prevent Mara from disturbing his meditation  
2. Buddha's calling of the Earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara
3. Buddha's reminder to his followers that they all arise from the Earth and finally dissolve into the Earth, and thus this life is transitory  
4. Both the statements (a) and (b) are correct in this context

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Correct Answer - Option 2 : Buddha's calling of the Earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara

The correct answer is option 2.

  • Bhumisparsha Mudra-
    • This gesture is also known as ‘touching the Earth’, which represents the moment of the Buddha’s awakening as he claims the earth as the witness of his enlightenment. Hence option 2 is correct.
    • In the course of his meditations, the Buddha was tempted by the demon Mara. Mara sent his armies, various temptations, and finally (as depicted here) a challenge that the Buddha must defend his claim of enlightenment. The Buddha touched the earth and called the earth to witness his achievement. This “touching the earth” is seen as a significant gesture (mudra) in this sculpture. This iconography of the Buddha became very popular throughout Asia.

Various Buddha Mudras are

  • Dharmachakra Mudra-
    • It is also called a gesture of 'teaching of the wheel of dharma'. It is performed with the help of both hands which are held against the chest, the left-facing inward, covering the right facing outward.
  • Dhyan Mudra
    • It is also known as Samadhi or Yoga Mudra. It is performed with the help of two hands, which are placed on the lap and place the right hand on the left hand with stretched fingers.
  • Varada Mudra
    • This mudra represents the offering, welcome, charity, giving, compassion, and sincerity.
  • Karana Mudra
    • It signifies the warding off of evil which is performed by raising the index and the little finger and folding the other fingers.
  • Vajra Mudra
    • This gesture denotes the fiery thunderbolt that symbolizes the five elements—air, water, fire, earth, and metal.
  • Vitarka Mudra
    • It signifies the discussion and transmission of the teachings of the Buddha.
  • Abhaya Mudra
    • It is a gesture of fearlessness or blessing that represents the protection, peace, benevolence and dispelling of fear.
  • Uttarabodhi Mudra
    • This denotes the supreme enlightenment by connecting oneself with divine universal energy.
  • Anjali Mudra
    • It is also called Namaskara Mudra or Hridayanjali Mudra that represents the gesture of greeting, prayer and adoration.

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