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A bacteria has the ability to tolerate excess heat, dryness and toxic chemical substances. This suggests that he may possibly make ________.
1. Endogenous buds
2. A wide peptidoglycan wall
3. Endotoxins
4. Endospores

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Endospores

The correct answer is Endospores.

  • Microorganisms sense and adapt to changes in their environment.
  • Endospores can survive environmental assaults that would normally kill the bacterium. These stresses include high temperature, high UV irradiation, desiccation, chemical damage, and enzymatic destruction.
  •  A variety of different microorganisms form "spores" or "cysts", but the endospores of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria are by far the most resistant to harsh conditions.

  • Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen and is a component of the exterior cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, like E. coli.
    • Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide or LPS.
    • LPS consists of the lipid A portion containing fatty acids and disaccharide phosphates, core polysaccharides, and the O-antigen.
  • Peptidoglycan is the basic unit of the cell wall in bacteria, that confers mechanical rigidity to the cell, protects the cytoplasmic membrane, and determines the cell form.
    • In Gram-positive bacteria, a thick coat of peptidoglycan combined with teichoic acid constitutes the basic structure of the cell wall.
  • Endogenous budding is the process when the bud develops inside the parent body.
    • Endogenously developing bud is called a gemmule.
    • It occurs in- freshwater sponges and a few marine sponges.
    • They reproduce by sexual and asexual mode.

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