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Which of the following sites, where stupas were constructed over the relics of Buddha, is/are outside the Gangetic valley?

1. Avanti

2. Allakappa

3. Pippalvina

4. Pava

5. Gandhara

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


1, 2 and 4 only

2. 3, 4 and 5 only
3. 1 and 5 only
4. 1, 2 4 and 5 only

1 Answer

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : 1 and 5 only

The correct answer is 1 and 5 only.

  • Due to the popularity of Buddhism and Jainism, stupas and viharas were constructed on a large scale.
    • However, there are also examples of a few Brahmanical gods in the sculptural representations.
  • It is important to note that the stupas were constructed over the relics of the Buddha at Rajagraha, Vaishali, Kapilavastu, Allakappa, Ramagrama, Vethadipa, Pava, Kushinagar and Pippalvina. These all are in Gangetic valley. Hence, option 2, 3 and 4 are NOT correct.
  • The textual tradition also mentions the construction of various other stupas on the relics of the Buddha at several places including Avanti and Gandhara which are outside the Gangetic valley. Hence, option 1 and 5 are correct.


  • Stupa, vihara and chaitya are part of Buddhist and Jaina monastic complexes but the largest number belongs to the Buddhist religion.
  • One of the best examples of the structure of a stupa in the third century BCE is at Bairat in Rajasthan.
    • It is a very grand stupa having a circular mound with a circulatory path.
  • The great stupa at Sanchi was built with bricks during the time of Ashoka and later it was covered with stone and many new additions were made.
  • Subsequently, many such stupas were constructed which shows the popularity of Buddhism.
  • From the second century BCE onwards, we get many inscriptional pieces of evidence mentioning donors and, at times, their profession.
  • The pattern of patronage has been a very collective one and there are very few examples of royal patronage.

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