1. The energy of electrons in an atoms is quarantined.
2. The existence of quarantined electronic energy levels is a direct result of the wave like properties of electrons. The solutions of Schrodinger wave equation gives the allowed energy levels (orbits).
3. According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, the exact position and momentum of an electron cannot be determined with absolute accuracy. As a consequence, quantum mechanics introduced the concept of orbital. Orbital is a three dimensional space in which the probability of finding the electron is maximum.
4. The solution of Schrodinger wave equation for the allowed energies of an atom gives the wave function Ψ, which represents an atomic orbital. The wave nature of electron present in an orbital can be well defined by the wave function Ψ.
5. The wave function Ψ itself has no physical meaning. However, the probability of finding the electron in a small volume dx, dy, dz around a point (x,y,z) is proportional to |Ψ (x,y,z)|2 dx dy dz |Ψ (x,y,z)|2 is known as probability density and is always positive.