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“The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s.” Support this statement with examples.

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Institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980’s and 1990’s by the Government of India – 

Institutional Reforms : 

(i) A Comprehensive Land Development Programme was initiated. 

(ii) Provision of crop insurance against drought, floods, cyclone, fire and disease. 

(iii) Establishment of Gramin Banks , Cooperative Societies and Banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest. 

(iv) Kissan Credit Card (KCC) introduced. 

(v) Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) introduced. 

(vi) The government announced Minimum Support Price, remunerative and procurement prices to reduce exploitation. 

Technological Reforms : 

(i) HYV seeds / Chemical Fertilizer/ Pesticides were provided. 

(ii) Methods of Irrigation modernized. 

(iii) Latest agricultural equipments introduced. 

(iv) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on Radio and Television. 

(v) Any other relevant point. Any five points to be explained in which at least any two from Institutional and two from technological reforms to be explained.

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