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On Indian Railways, the maximum gradient permitted in station yards is taken as
1. 1 in 200
2. 1 in 300
3. 1 in 400
4. 1 in 500

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : 1 in 400

Concept:

Type of gradient

Characteristics/Definitions

Ruling gradient (Gradient on railway tracks)

1. It is the maximum gradient allowed on the railway tracks. Steep gradient requires powerful locomotives, hence steep gradients are avoided.

2. For plain terrain – (0.50% to 0.67%)

3. For hilly regions – (0.67% to 1%)

Momentum Gradient

1. If rising gradient is followed by the falling gradient, the train while coming down in falling gradient acquires sufficient momentum, this momentum gives additional kinetic energy to the train.

2. This rising gradient is called momentum gradient.

3. It is steeper than the ruling gradient.

Pusher or Helper Gradient

1. In mountainous regions where assistant engine or pusher engine or helper engine is required at the end of the train is known as pusher gradient.

2. In general for 1 in 75 and above pusher engine is used.

Gradients in station Yards

1. It is provided to drain off the water used for cleaning rains.

2. It should be sufficiently low to prevent the movement of standing vehicles and also to prevent additional resistance at the start of vehicle.

3. Maximum gradient permitted on the station yards is 1 in 400 to 1 in 1000

Note:

(i) The maximum gradient permitted in railway track is 1 in 400. The gradient is limited to prevent the downward movement of standing vehicles on the track due to effect of gravity.

(ii) In addition to above, a minimum gradient of 1 in 1000 must be provided in station yard in order to ensure efficient drainage.

Order of different gradients in railways are as follows:

(Gradients in station yards) < (Ruling Gradient) < (Momentum Gradient) < (Pusher or helper Gradient)

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