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Magnetism is mainly due to only electron spin around their own axis in case of
1. diamagnetic materials
2. paramagnetic materials
3. ferromagnetic materials
4. paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : ferromagnetic materials

Ferromagnetic material:

  • Ferromagnetism is a kind of magnetism that is associated with iron, cobalt, nickel, and some alloys or compounds containing one or more of these elements.
  • In contrast to other substances, ferromagnetic materials are magnetized easily.
  • In strong magnetic fields, the magnetization approaches a definite limit called saturation.
  • When heated to a certain temperature called the Curie point which is different for each substance, ferromagnetic materials lose their characteristic properties and cease to be magnetic; however, they become ferromagnetic again on cooling.
  • The magnetism in ferromagnetic materials is caused by the alignment patterns of their constituent atoms, which act as elementary electromagnets.

 

Ferromagnetism is explained by the concept that some species of atoms possess a magnetic moment

  • An atom itself is an elementary electromagnet produced by the motion of electrons about its nucleus and by the spin of its electrons on its own axis.
  • Below the Curie point, atoms that behave as tiny magnets in ferromagnetic materials spontaneously align themselves.
  • They become oriented in the same direction so that their magnetic fields reinforce each other.

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