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The factors that direct the energize the behaviour of humans and other organisms is called
1. Instincts
2. Leadership
3. Motivation
4. Competition

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Correct Answer - Option 3 : Motivation

Motivation refers to the factors which move or activate the organism. We infer the presence of motivation when we see that people work toward certain goals. Motivation is something that energizes and directs behaviour. There are two identifiable components of motivation. These are needed and drive. 

Motivation is of two type- Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation.

  • Extrinsic Motivation- 
    • When an activity is performed to accomplish the goal of an external reward, the person is said to be extrinsically motivated.
    • Undertaking a given task may be motivated by the promise of a prize or some other kind of gain which is external to the task.
    • Thus, the task is instrumental in receiving or gaining access to the external reward. In all such situations, the locus of control is external to the person who is asked to undertake the activity.
    • Such situations characterize the kind of motivation which is extrinsic. 
  • Intrinsic Motivation- 
    • We have situations in which the source of motivation lies inside the task. In such cases, we work because the task itself is interesting and does not require any external source of motivation.
    • Here, the task is not instrumental in obtaining any external reward. The locus of control is inside the person.
    • A person’s involvement in the task is spontaneous and the task itself acts as its own reward.
    • This situation represents intrinsic motivation such as a child’s play, reading an interesting novel, writing a poem or a story. 

Thus from the above-mentioned points, it is clear that the factors that direct energize the behaviour of humans and other organisms is called motivation.

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