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Which of the following schools of philosophy regards education as a means for social growth and economic production ?
1. Idealism
2. Realism
3. Naturalism
4. Marxism

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Correct Answer - Option 4 : Marxism

School of philosophy



  • Holds that ultimate reality is spiritualism.
  • Gives importance to the personality development of students, unity in diversity.
  • In idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each individual's abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society. The curricular emphasis is the subject matter of mind, literature, history, philosophy, and religion.


  • It is an angle of vision according to which things, as we see or perceive, are realities.
  • It believes, reality exists independent of the human mind.
  • The ultimate reality is the physical world.


  • It is a doctrine that separates nature from god.
  • Naturalism in education stands for the doctrine of “follow nature” in education.
  • It is an assertion that scientific knowledge is final, leaving no room for extra-scientific or philosophical knowledge.
  • It stands for complete freedom to be given to the child in learning. 
  •  Under the naturalistic school of philosophy, the aim of education is self-expression. Some naturalists consider man as a machine and they opine that the aim of education is to make the human-machine as perfect and efficient as possible.


  • Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory works in philosophy that is strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory.
  • The Marxist approach to education is broadly constructivist and emphasizes activity, collaboration, and critique, rather than passive absorption of knowledge.
  • Marxism lays stress on providing education to all sections of the society, i.e., universal education.
  • Social advancement is to be ensured through education. Education is considered the greatest instrument of social change.
  • In Marxism, the emphasis is laid on vocational and technological education.
  • In Marxist education ‘labor and work’ are considered as integral parts.

Conclusion: Idealist philosophy lay emphasis on training of mind and soul of the child, realism believes in the physical world, naturalists believe in nature around the child and the nature of the child, and accordingly training should be given. While Marxism believes in a classless society where everyone should get equal opportunity in society. They emphasized on vocational and technological education of children to bring social change. Hence, option (4) is correct.

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