Correct Answer - Option 3 : P-5; Q-3; R-1; S-2
Nai Talim Methodology Of Mahatma Gandhi
- Mahatma Gandhi has given his scheme of Nai Talim (New Education) in a well formulated approach to education in 1937 in his news paper ‘Harijan’.
- It is a well developed philosophy of education based on experiments he did right from 1904 when he was in South Africa to his stay in ashrams in India at Sabarmati (Gujarat) and Sevagram.
- It is an approach to the total personality development of body, mind and spirit and was based on four basic principles:
- 1. Education or learning in mother tongue along with handicraft work,
- 2. Work should be linked with most useful vocational needs of the locality,
- 3. Learning should be linked with vocational work, and
- 4. Work should be socially useful and productive needed for living.
- He believed in education that was deeply rooted in one’s immediate surroundings but connected to the cultures of the wider world, predicated upon pleasurable learning and individualized to the personality of the child.
- Tagore's own educational system had its implication in the field of natural education.
- For him, education should take the children nearer to nature, and being a spiritualist.
- His educational philosophy was based on three cardinals principal: Freedom and joy for the children in creative self-expression and active communion of man and nature.
- According to Tagore, education based on three sources i.e. nature, life, and teacher. Among them, nature can be considered as the generous donor but the sensitivity of the child and its respective power is to be enkindled by independent and creative thinking and this hard job belongs to the teacher
Integral Education, as envisioned by the Mother and Sri Aurobindo, regards the child as a growing soul and helps him to bring out all that is best, most powerful, most innate and living in his nature.
- It helps the child develop all facets of his personality and awaken his latent possibilities so that he acquires - a strong, supple, healthy, beautiful body - a sensitive, emotionally refined, energetic personality - a wide-ranging, lively intelligence and will - the subtler spiritual qualities that unify and harmonise the being around the child's inmost Truth or Soul.
- The focus and emphasis in Integral Education (IE) is not just information and skills acquisition but also self-development, triggered from within the child and supported and nourished by teachers and parents.
- Every experience becomes a learning tool for the child in its growth. IE helps the child to integrate with its true Self, its surroundings, its society, its country and humanity; in other words, to become the complete being, the integral being that the child is meant to be.
- “If you can think that infinite power, infinite knowledge and indomitable energy lie within you, and if you can bring out that power, you also can become like me.”- is said by Vivekananda